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Cambridge Infectious Diseases

An Interdisciplinary Research Centre at the University of Cambridge

Studying at Cambridge


Dr Caroline Trotter

Dr Caroline Trotter

Principal Research Associate, Department of Veterinary Medicine

Academic Director Cambridge-Africa, Department of Pathology

Honorary Epidemiologist at Public Health England

Caroline Trotter is accepting applications for PhD students.


I am an infectious disease epidemiologist with an interest in vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly bacterial meningitis. I obtained my first degree in Human Sciences from the University of Oxford, followed by an MSc and PhD in Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. I worked at the Health Protection Agency and then the University of Bristol. In 2013 I moved to Cambridge, joining the Disease Dynamics Unit in the Department of Veterinary Medicine. Since October 2018, I have a joint role as the Academic Director of Cambridge-Africa, a programme that supports African researchers and promotes mutually beneficial collaborations and equitable partnerships between Africa and Cambridge. 

Research themes

Infectious Disease Dynamics:

Epidemiology and control of bacterial meningitis and other vaccine-preventable infections

Drugs and Vaccines:

Epidemiology of vaccine preventable infections, mathematical modelling to predict and compare the impact of different immunisation strategies.

Cambridge Parasitic and Neglected Tropical Diseases Network:
Connections in Africa:
  • I have connections in Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal through the MenAfriCar consortium (
Connections in Europe:

I have connections in Europe through the European Meningococcal Disease Society

Departments and Institutes

Veterinary Medicine:
Principal Research Associate

Research Interests

My research concentrates on understanding the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and the impact of immunisation. The majority of my work is on meningococcal infection, and I conduct studies in Europe and Africa.  I am also involved in research on group B streptococcus, pneumococcus, rotavirus, norovirus, HPV and rabies.

I use a range of methods including analysis of large databases, systematic reviews, prospective clinical/ field studies, health economics, seroprevalence studies and mathematical modelling. I am most interested in applying these methods to research questions of direct relevance for vaccine policy.


  • Health Economics
  • Epidemiology
  • Epidemic control
  • Public Health
  • Infection
  • Immunisation
  • Dynamics
  • Vaccine


  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Meningitis
  • Rabies
  • Streptococcus
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Norovirus


  • Statistical Methods
  • Mathematical modelling

Key Publications

For a full list of my papers click here

Estimating the health impact of vaccination against ten pathogens in 98 low-income and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2030: a modelling study. Li X, Mukandavire C, Cucunubá ZM, Echeverria Londono S, Abbas K, Clapham HE, Jit M, Johnson HL, Papadopoulos T, Vynnycky E, Brisson M, Carter ED, Clark A, de Villiers MJ, Eilertson K, Ferrari MJ, Gamkrelidze I, Gaythorpe KAM, Grassly NC, Hallett TB, Hinsley W, Jackson ML, Jean K, Karachaliou A, Klepac P, Lessler J, Li X, Moore SM, Nayagam S, Nguyen DM, Razavi H, Razavi-Shearer D, Resch S, Sanderson C, Sweet S, Sy S, Tam Y, Tanvir H, Tran QM, Trotter CL, Truelove S, van Zandvoort K, Verguet S, Walker N, Winter A, Woodruff K, Ferguson NM, Garske T; Vaccine Impact Modelling Consortium.Lancet. 2021 Jan 30;397(10272):398-408. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32657-X

Meningococcal carriage in periods of high and low invasive meningococcal disease incidence in the UK: comparison of UKMenCar1-4 cross-sectional survey results. MacLennan JM, Rodrigues CMC, Bratcher HB, Lekshmi A, Finn A, Oliver J, Wootton M, Ray S, Cameron C, Smith A, Heath PT, Bartolf A, Nolan T, Hughes S, Varghese A, Snape MD, Sewell R, Cunningham R, Stolton A, Kay C, Palmer K, Baxter D, Suggitt D, Zipitis CS, Pemberton N, Jolley KA, Bray JE, Harrison OB, Ladhani SN, Pollard AJ, Borrow R, Gray SJ, Trotter C, Maiden MCJ.Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 19:S1473-3099(20)30842-2. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30842-2.

Meningococcal B Vaccine and Meningococcal Carriage in Adolescents in Australia. Marshall HS, McMillan M, Koehler AP, Lawrence A, Sullivan TR, MacLennan JM, Maiden MCJ, Ladhani SN, Ramsay ME, Trotter C, Borrow R, Finn A, Kahler CM, Whelan J, Vadivelu K, Richmond P. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 23;382(4):318-327. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1900236.

The potential effect of improved provision of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in Gavi-eligible countries: a modelling study. WHO Rabies Modelling Consortium.Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Jan;19(1):102-111. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30512-7.

Impact of MenAfriVac in nine countries of the African meningitis belt, 2010-15: an analysis of surveillance data. Trotter CL, Lingani C, Fernandez K, Cooper LV, Bita A, Tevi-Benissan C, Ronveaux O, Préziosi MP, Stuart JM.Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Aug;17(8):867-872. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30301-8.