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Cambridge Infectious Diseases

An Interdisciplinary Research Centre at the University of Cambridge

Studying at Cambridge


Dr Caroline Trotter

Dr Caroline Trotter

Senior Lecturer in Epidemiology

Honorary Epidemiologist at Public Health England (Immunisation)


I obtained my first degree in Human Sciences from the University of Oxford, followed by an MSc and PhD in Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. I worked at the Health Protection Agency and then the University of Bristol before moving to Cambridge in January 2013. I work in the Disease Dynamics Unit in the Department of Veterinary Medicine.

Research themes

Epidemiology and mathematical modelling:

Epidemiology and control of bacterial meningitis and other vaccine-preventable infections

Drugs and Vaccines:

Epidemiology of vaccine preventable infections, mathematical modelling to predict and compare the impact of different immunisation strategies.

Connections in Africa:
  • I have connections in Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal through the MenAfriCar consortium (
Connections in Europe:

I have connections in Europe through the European Meningococcal Disease Society

Departments and Institutes

Veterinary Medicine:

Research Interests

My research concentrates on understanding the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and the impact of immunisation. The majority of my work is on meningococcal infection, and I conduct studies in Europe and Africa.  I am also involved in research on group B streptococcal, pneumococcal, rotavirus, norovirus and HPV infections.

I use a range of methods including analysis of large databases, systematic reviews, prospective clinical/ field studies, health economics, seroprevalence studies and mathematical modelling. I am most interested in applying these methods to research questions of direct relevance for vaccine policy.


  • Health Economics
  • Epidemiology
  • Epidemic control
  • Public Health
  • Infection
  • Immunisation
  • Dynamics


  • Streptococcus
  • Meningitis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae


  • Statistical Methods
  • Mathematical modelling

Key Publications

For a full list of my papers click here

Karachaliou A, Conlan AJ, Preziosi MP, Trotter CL. Modeling Long-term Vaccination Strategies With MenAfriVac in the African Meningitis Belt. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61 Suppl 5:S594-600. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ508

Christensen H, Trotter CL, Hickman M, Edmunds WJ. Re-evaluating the cost-effectiveness of universal ‘MenB’ (Bexsero) vaccination in England: a modelling study. BMJ 2014  349 doi: 

Daugla DM, Gami JP,  Gamougam K, Naibei N, Mbainadji L, Narbé M,  Toralta J, Kodbesse B, Ngadoua C, Coldiron M, Ferman F, Page A-L,  Djingarey M,  Hugonnet S, Harrison OB, Rebbetts LS, Tekletsion Y, Watkins ER, Caugant DA,  Chandramohan D,  Hassan-King M, Manigart O, Nascimento M, Woukeu A,  Trotter C, Stuart JM, Maiden MCJ, Greenwood B. The impact of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad. Lancet 2014.383:40-7

Rozenbaum M, van Hoek AJ, Fleming D, Trotter CL, Miller E, Edmunds WJ. Cost-effectiveness of vaccinating risk groups in England against invasive pneumococcal disease using the 13 valent pneumococcal vaccine: an economic analysis. BMJ. 2012 345:e6879

Christensen H, May MT, Bowen L, Hickman M, Trotter CL. A systematic review of meningococcal carriage by age. Lancet Infect Dis 2010, 10:853-61